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                                                     GEOLOGY

The whole district forms part of the great trap region of the Deccan. Throughout Ahmednagar the trap rock is distinctly stratified and ,as in the rest of the Deccan, the alternative  belts of basalt and amygdaloid  preserve a striking parallelism to each other .

Prismatic disposition is observed more markedly and perfectly in the basalt strata than in the amygdaloids. Perfect columns are generally small, of four, five, or six sides, but the prismatic structure sometimes manifests itself in basaltic and amygdaloidal columns many feet in diameter, In the face of  the hill at Kothul, a small village in shrigonda twenty four miles south of Ahmednagar ,there is thick stratum  of close grained  gray homogeneous basalt wich is crowned by temple of Khandoba.

In the water-courses  near Kadus in Parner are columns of basalt of bluish gray colour, compact texture, vitreous hue, and sharp fracture. At Harichandra there is sheet of rock which has the appearance of a pavement  of  pentangular slabs which are doubtless the terminal planes of basaltic columns. 

Round or oval masses of compact basalt, with concentric layers like the coasts of an onion, known as nodular basalt are widely diffused and form another characteristic of Deccan trap formation.  

The basaltic dykes are all vertical and do not occasion any disturbance or dislocation in the strata through which they pass. The most remarkable example is the dyke which runs vertically from east to west  through the hill-fort of Harichandragad.  

Another distinctive feature is the occurrence of strata of red ochreous rock underlining thick strata  of basalt or amygdaloid. At Baragaon-Nandur in the Rahuri subdivision it is found many thick as a porphyritic stratum with embedded crystals of lime and is used as a building stone.

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Another distinctive feature of the Deccan  trap formation is the occurrence of immense quantities of loose basalt stones of all sizes which look as if they had been showered on the land :also of rock  piled into heaps as if by the labour of man.

Pot holes in the rocky river beds are of frequent occurrence. Those above the falls of the Pravara , at village of Rauda in the Akole Subdivision, and at Kund-Mahuli in the Kukadi river a short distance from the village Nighoj in the Parner subdivision, are specially note worthy on account of their number and size.

POT HOLES ,NIGHOJ