EDUCATION AND CULTURE

SECONDARY EDUCATION

Like primary education the growth of secondary education since 1947-48 was also quite significant. The growth in the number of pupils was comparatively less in secondary stage than that in primary stage. While the number of pupils in primary stage had increased four times, the increase in secondary stage was about two times only during the years from 1947-48 to 1958-59. The reason may be sought in the fact that at the primary stage, education is compulsory while at the secondary stage it is not so.

The following statement gives the percentage of students in secondary stage to those in primary stage since 1947-48 for a few years:—

Year

Percentage of students in secondary schools to those in primary schools

1947-48

17

1950-51

9

1955-56

6

1957-58

7

1958-59

7

Table No. 10 shows the number of students in secondary schools in the district for the years 1951, 1956 and 1961.

The total number of students on roll in the secondary schools in 1965-66 was 42,600. In the year 1970-71 this number stood at 61,031.

The following statement shows the taluka-wise increase in the number of pupils in secondary schools for the years 1962-63 and 1963-64:—

Taluka

Year

1962-63

1963-64

Ahmadnagar

104

114

Akola

129

158

Jamkhed

120

137

Karjat

125

142

Kopargaon

114

152

Newasa

138

172

Parner

114

133

Pathardi

136

156

Rahuri

187

214

Sangamner

107

119

Shevgaon

115

154

Shrigonda

116

132

Shrirampur

119

136

District Total

116

133

Boys

116

133

Girls

117

135

TABLE No. 10—TALUKA-WISE NUMBER OF STUDENTS ENROLLED IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THE AHMADNAGAR DISTRICT IN 1951, 1956 AND 1961

Taluka

Year

Pupils

Boys

Girls

Total

District Total

1951

6,486

1,261

7,747

1956

7,933

1,835

9,768

1961

17,194

4,196

21,390

Kopargaon

1951

426

54

480

1956

690

147

837

1961

2,016

442

2.458

Akola

1951

--

--

--

1956

172

10

182

1961

435

56

491

Sangamner

1951

989

108

1,097

1956

893

130

1,023

1961

1,683

309

1,992

Shrirampur

1951

874

136

1,010

1956

1,165

229

1,394

1961

2,104

546

2,650

Rahuri

1951

155

31

186

1956

249

32

281

1961

848

148

996

Newasa

1951

58

3

61

1956

165

15

180

1961

637

89

726

Shevgaon

1951

73

6

79

1956

166

17

183

1961

443

35

478

Parner

1951

49

--

49

1956

174

10

184

1961

915

74

989

Ahmadnagar

1951

3,590

916

4,506

1956

3,532

1,189

4.721

1961

5,900

2,270

8,170

Pathardi

1951

137

5

142

1956

249

16

265

1961

689

64

753

Shrigonda

1951

--

--

--

1956

84

7

91

1961

596

55

651

Karjat

1951

105

--

105

1956

240

20

260

1961

480

68

548

Jamkhed

1951

30

2

32

1956

154

13

167

1961

448

40

488

The above statement shows an increase of 16 and 17 per 100 in the number of boys and girls, respectively during 1962-63 and an increase of 33 and 35 per 100 during the two-year period from 1961-62 to 1963-64. As against the 33 per cent increase in the total number of pupils in secondary schools during 1961-62 to 1963-64, the corresponding increase in the Maharashtra State as a whole was 24 per cent. This shows that the growth of secondary education in Ahmadnagar district was at a faster pace than that for the whole State. Among various talukas, Rahuri taluka was found to have registered maximum increase in the number of pupils during the two years 1962-1964. The percentage increase was to the tune of 119. Increase in Nevasa (72 per cent) and Akola (58 per cent) talukas was also promising. Ahmadnagar taluka which had witnessed maximum increase in the number of primary school pupils had registered a meagre increase of 14 per cent in its number of secondary pupils. Considering the girls/boys ratio among the secondary pupils there were 24 and 25 girls per 100 boys during the years 1961-62 and 1963-64, respectively. The ratio among the pupils in primary schools during 1963-64 was 55 and this ratio among pupils in secondary schools during the same year, showed a very wide variation in the composition of pupils at primary and secondary stages.

The following statement gives the number of pupils learning in different media in secondary schools:—

Medium of instructions

Pupils

1961-62

1966-67

1970-71

Marathi

24,610

44,094

56,774

Urdu

389

687

801

Hindi

503

906

766

English

297

508

1,559

Government have introduced various schemes to promote education by giving facilities for economically backward class population. All students whose parents' annual income from all sources does not exceed Rs. 1,200 are eligible for free education. In 1970 the income-limit was raised to Rs. 1,800.

The following statement shows the number of economically backward class beneficiaries:—

Year

Students

1961-62

14,583

1965-66

20,110

1966-67

31,263

1967-68

31,353

The students from scheduled castes, scheduled tribes or other back-ward class students whose parents' annual income does not exceed Rs. 1,800 get free education. In 1966-67 the total enrolment of backward class students was 29,894 including 4,308 girls. Among them 3,025 belonged to scheduled castes, 666 to scheduled tribes and 26,203 to other backward classes. The income-limit has now been raised to Rs. 2,400. In the year 1970-71 there were enrolled 3,885 scheduled caste students including 553 girl-students.

In the year 1951, the number of teachers in secondary schools was 323 as against 422 in 1956. The same rose to 869 in 1961. The highest number of teachers was 349 in Ahmadnagar taluka as against the lowest number of teachers which was 18 in Jamkhed taluka in the year 1961. In March 1962 the total number of teachers was 1,067. out of whom 764 or 71.6 per cent were trained. The proportion of trained secondary teachers in the district stood at 71.6 per cent in 1961-62 and at 74.5 per cent in 1963-64. During the same period, the corresponding proportion for the whole State stood at 63.00 per cent and 68.4 per cent, respectively. These figures show that Ahmadnagar district was better placed in this respect as compared to the State as a whole. In the year 1966-67 the number of secondary school teachers was 1,822, out of whom 1,424 were trained and 398 untrained. The male teachers numbered 1,490 and female teachers 332; out of them 1,142 and 282, respectively were trained. In 1970-71 the number of teachers was 2,439, of which 407 were female-teachers. Of 2,439 total teachers in the secondary schools, 1,943 were trained hands including 364 female-teachers.

Like primary education, there is appreciable growth of secondary education in this district. The oldest secondary school in this district is the American Mission High School, Ahmadnagar. It started functioning from 1833. All the educated and renowned persons in Ahmadnagar district, who made their name in social and educational field in the last generation, were the students of this high school. The Christian Missions have done a very good work in the spread of secondary education in the district. The Ahmadnagar Education Society followed in the foot-steps of the Christian Missions and started indigenous schools in Ahmadnagar city and Sangamner town, respectively. Government started one girls' high school in Ahmadnagar in 1920, for the spread of girls' education in the district. Up to 1955-56, there were only three full-fledged secondary schools for girls in the district. At other places and even in city girls were admitted to boys' high schools. There were only 26 secondary schools in 1947-48 in the district. The number increased to 54 in 1958-59.

The growth in the secondary education in regard to the number of institutions and pupils from 1947-48 to 1958-59 is shown below:

Year

Institutions

Pupils

1947-48

26

6,935

1950-51

29

8,435

1955-56

40

9,730

1957-58

49

12,291

1958-59

54

1 4,276

The number of institutions per lakh of population for secondary education in the district as compared to that for Pune division and for the State of Maharashtra is given below:—

Ahmadnagar district

Pune division

Maharashtra State

3.4

4.9

5.0

The number of schools and their classification in the district as on 31st March 1962 was as follows:—

 

Total

Vocational High Schools

Higher Secondary Schools

Middle Secondary Schools

Multipurpose

Ordinary

State

   1

--

1

--

--

Municipal

--

--

--

--

--

Private

111

2

7

101

 1

Other indices of secondary education in the district as compared to the State averages were as follows:—

Particulars

Ahmadnagar district

Maharashtra State

Population served by each high school

16,017

13,805

Area served by each school (square miles)

59.0

40.8

Pupils/teachers ratio

24

25

Pupils per secondary school

230

338

Average annual salary per teacher (Rs.)

1,668

1,870

Average annual expenditure (direct) per secondary      school (Rs.)

25,679

39,543

Average number of teachers per secondary school

9.5

13.7

The progress made in secondary education after 1961-62 was also quite striking. The number of schools which stood al 112 in 1961-62. went upto 147 in the year 1965-66. In the year 1970-71 there were 218 secondary institutions in the district.

For improvement of the secondary education in the country, the Government of India had appointed a commission under the chairmanship of Shri A. L. Mudliar, Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. The Commission recommended the introduction of different crafts in the syllabus of secondary schools to improve the standard of students receiving instructions in them. The ordinary secondary schools were converted into multi-purpose high schools in many parts of country. In western Maharashtra, the change was not appreciated so much and hence very few secondary schools adopted the syllabus for multi purpose high schools. Ahmadnagar district was not an exception to this general move.

Secondary School Certificate Examination Board. Pune conducts public examinations at the end of the Secondary School Course. Two examinations are held every year in March and October and Ahmadnagar, Kopargaon, Sangamner, Shrirampur and Karjat are the examination centres in the district. The number of candidates who appeared and passed from those centres during the year 1962 is as follows:—

Examination held in—

Appeared

Passed

March

3,928

2,115

October

1,382

681

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