AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION

SUGARCANE

SUGARCANE

Sugarcane occupies an important place in the economy of the district. It is the most important cash-crop of the district. The total area under this crop since 1880-81 has increased considerably. The following figures show how the area under this crop has increased in recent years:—

Year

Area

1880-81

2,219 acres

1890-91

2,758 acres

1900-01

1,030 acres

1910-11

1,875 acres

1920-21

6,923 acres

1940-41

36,542 acres

1950-51

48,500 acres

1960-61

89,200 acres

1971-72

     49,204 hectares

TABLE No. 10—AREA AND OUT-TURN OF DRUGS AND NARCOTICS IN AHMADNAGAR DISTRICT FROM 1961-62 TO 1965-66 AND 1971-72

Taluka

Year

Area in acres

Out-turn of Tobacco in tons

Tobacco

Betel leaves

Total drugs and narcotics

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

Ahmadnagar

1961-62

186

15

201

83

1962-63

232

6

238

95

1963-64

144

9

153

64

1964-65

58

8

66

24

1965-66

43

10

53

16

1971-72

31

--

33

--

Sangamner

1961-62

238

147

385

55

1962-63

262

109

371

98

1963-64

220

85

305

50

1964-65

186

45

231

27

1965-66

145

45

190

65

1971-72

23

--

46

--

Akola

1961-62

175

--

175

26

1962-63

143

--

143

17

1963-64

123

--

123

19

1964-65

175

--

175

5

1965-66

115

--

115

51

1971-72

17

--

17

--

Kopargaon

1961-62

24

6

30

11

1962-63

25

11

36

11

1963-64

8

6

14

2

1964-65

11

9

20

4

1965-66

1

8

9

--

1971-72

1

--

2

--

Shrirampur

1961-62

8

16

24

1

1962-63

40

26

66

8

1963-64

9

24

33

1

1964-65

33

26

59

5

1965-66

25

21

46

11

1971-72

3

--

13

--

Rahuri

1961-62

13

--

13

2

1962-63

17

--

17

4

1963-64

14

--

14

3

1964-65

4

--

4

1

1965-66

2

--

2

1

1971-72

1

--

1

--

Nevasa

1961-62

132

1

133

19

1962-63

320

1

321

51

1963-64

217

--

217

71

1964-65

225

--

225

100

1965-66

102

--

102

18

1971-72

14

--

14

--

TABLE No. 10—contd.

Taluka

Year

Area in acres*

Out-turn of Tobacco in tons*

Tobacco

Betel-leaves

Total drugs and narcotics

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

Shevgaon

1961-62

127

--

127

34

1962-63

295

8

303

98

1963-64

108

7

115

48

1964-65

175

7

182

26

1965-66

115

8

123

16

1971-72

40

--

43

--

Pathardi

1961-62

45

2

47

7

1962-63

129

17

146

40

1963-64

61

4

65

12

1964-65

24

4

28

11

1965-66

49

2

51

22

1971-72

7

--

8

--

Parner

1961-62

47

3

50

21

1962-63

53

2

55

17

1963-64

31

2

33

14

1964-65

17

3

20

8

1965-66

27

2

29

12

1971-72

1

--

1

--

Shrigonda

1961-62

71

66

137

32

1962-63

47

45

92

21

1963-64

40

40

80

18

1964-65

35

28

63

15

1965-66

26

19

45

7

1971-72

13

--

17

--

Karjat

1961-62

55

2

57

21

1962-63

35

7

42

15

1963-64

39

5

44

16

1964-65

59

5

64

26

1965-66

27

--

27

12

1971-72

7

--

8

--

Jamkhed

1961-62

32

25

57

11

1962-63

53

18

71

20

1963-64

63

18

81

28

1964-65

81

13

74

36

1965-66

68

12

80

30

1971-72

16

--

22

--

District Total

1961-62

1,153

283

1,436

323

1962-63

1,651

250

1,901

495

1963-64

1,077

200

1,277

346

1964-65

1,083

148

1,231

288

1965-66

745

127

872

261

1971-72

174

--

229

200

* Figures for 1971-72 are given in hectares and out-turn in metric tonnes.

In 1968-69 the acreage under this crop had increased to 1,16,400 acres. The district occupies an important place in Maharashtra State both from the point of view of the acreage under sugarcane crop and production of sugar. It is essentially an irrigated crop and requires plenty of water-supply. The increase in the area under the crop is mainly due to increased irrigation facilities in recent years in the district. The cultivation of sugarcane is mainly concentrated in Shrirampur and Kopargaon talukas with Rahuri taluka following a close third. It is also grown in Sangamner and Nevasa talukas but the acreage under it in both the talukas is below two thousand acres. Table No. 11 shows taluka-wise acreage and out-turn of sugarcane-crop between 1961-62 and 1965-66.

Sugarcane is essentially a tropical Crop and takes twelve months for its full growth. Its out-turn is high in extremely hot climate as also where there is ample supply of water. It grows on a variety of soils ranging from lighter types to heavier ones. In lighter types of soil, however, irrigation is required to be given more frequently than in heavier soils. The land is first ploughed either by tractor or an iron-plough. At the time of preparing the land about 20 to 30 cart-loads of farm-yard manure are applied. The land is brought to fine tilth and afterwards it is divided into ridges and furrows at a distance of 3' to 3' apart for irrigation. Sugarcane sets are then planted in December-January. Sulphate of ammonia is applied before planting the sets, as it helps germination. Top dressing of sulphate of ammonia is given after about a month and a half or two months after weeding and first earthing up. Another top dressing of sulphate or oil-cake is given at the time of final earthing up in May. In all 175 kilograms of nitrate and 75 kilograms of P2O5 are applied and about 35 irrigations are given. Both suru and adsali plantations are in practice in the district. The suru plantation needs less quantity of fertilisers, i.e., 110 kilograms of nitrate and 50 kilograms of P2O5 The yield-rate per acre is about 60 to 70 tons. The entire produce of sugarcane in the district is crushed in the sugar factories in the district which in 1969-70 numbered 12.

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