AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION

FIBRES

Cotton: The fibre crops are grown on a very small area in the district. The important among them are cotton and jute. Tables Nos. 13 and 14 give taluka-wise area and out-turn of fibres in the district during 1961-62, 1965-66 and 1971-72. Of these, cotton occupies the largest area. The following statement gives total acreage under this crop in the district since 1844-45:—

Year

Area

1844-45

     2,106 acres

1850-51

      2,410 acres

1880-81

    11,055 acres

1890-91

    64,464 acres

1900-01

    75,371 acres

1910-11

2,14,127 acres

1920-21

     3,051 acres

1940-41

1,75,236 acres

1950-51

  46,600 acres

1960-61

  80,100 acres

1971-72

   8,652 hectares

TABLE No. 12—AREA UNDER CONDIMENTS AND SPICES IN AHMADNAGAR DISTRICT IN 1961-62, 1965-66 AND 1971-72

(In acres)

Taluka

Year

Chillis

Coriander

Garlic

Total condiments and spices

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

Ahmadnagar

1961-62

400

7

69

476

1965-66

433

6

43

482

1971-72

--

--

--

234

Sangamner

1961-62

718

1

32

751

1965-66

780

5

46

831

1971-72

--

--

--

323

Akola

1961-62

511

3

20

534

1965-66

528

3

5

536

1971-72

--

--

--

247

Kopargaon

1961-62

351

--

25

376

1965-66

545

1

11

557

1971-72

--

--

--

141

Shrirampur

1961-62

206

8

9

223

1965-66

377

5

27

409

1971-72

--

--

--

199

Rahuri

1961-62

207

3

14

224

1965-66

322

1

18

341

1971-72

--

--

--

103

Nevasa

1961-62

728

3

49

780

1965-66

1,134

7

72

1,213

1971-72

--

--

--

414

Shevgaon

1961-62

424

--

9

433

1965-66

318

2

8

328

1971-72

--

--

--

137

Pathardi

1961-62

420

9

53

482

1965-66

613

3

49

665

1971-72

--

--

--

137

Parner

1961-62

530

6

62

598

1965-66

527

18

66

611

1971-72

--

--

--

206

Shrigonda

1961-62

549

5

39

593

1965-66

689

5

7

701

1971-72

--

--

--

314

Karjat

1961-62

1,089

4

23

1,116

1965-66

853

27

20

900

1971-72

--

--

--

351

Jamkhed

1961-62

981

1

14

996

1965-66

1,328

7

28

1,363

1971-72

--

--

--

516

District Total

1961-62

7,114

50

418

7,582

1965-66

8,447

90

400

8,937

1971-72 *

--

--

--

3,323

*Figures for 1971-72 are in hectares.

TABLE No. 13—AREA UNDER FIBRES IN AHMADNAGAR DISTRICT IN 1961-62, 1965-66 AND 1971-72

(In acres)

Taluka

Year

Cotton

Jute

Sann Hemp

Ambadi

Total Fibres

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

Ahmadnagar

1961-62

3,844

1,084

55

--

4,983

1965-66

1,157

284

356

11

1,808

1971-72

643

--

--

--

648

Sangamner

1961-62

2,506

82

--

23

2,611

1965-66

1,524

1,525

199

11

3,259

1971-72

774

--

--

--

788

Akola

1961-62

74

--

73

109

256

1965-66

9

14

41

12

76

1971-72

28

--

--

--

46

Kopargaon

1961-62

4,467

--

473

1

4,941

1965-66

4,314

--

301

11

4,626

1971-72

636

--

--

--

782

Shrirampur

1961-62

3,863

946

549

23

5,381

1965-66

3,204

140

256

30

3,630

1971-72

750

--

--

--

1,030

Rahuri

1961-62

5,141

--

170

2

5,313

1965-66

3,406

41

103

2

3,552

1971-72

834

--

--

--

851

Nevasa

1961-62

1,392

--

47

135

1,574

1965-66

1,012

6,602

57

32

7,703

1971-72

877

--

--

--

894

Shevgaon

1961-62

1,269

32,209

69

281

33,828

1965-66

1,632

2,283

106

55

4,076

1971-72

1,433

--

--

--

1,439

Pathardi

1961-62

2,605

--

11

53

2,669

1965-66

2,356

1,474

37

33

3,900

1971-72

342

--

--

--

343

Parner

1961-62

2,269

96

11

103

2,479

1965-66

1,073

4

23

67

1,167

1971-72

409

--

--

--

414

Shrigonda

1961-62

4,549

2

--

10

4,561

1965-66

2,616

36

63

1

2,716

1971-72

927

--

--

--

938

Karjat

1961-62

4,501

--

4

33

4,538

1965-66

1,977

807

5

7

2,796

1971-72

912

--

--

--

913

Jamkhed

1961-62

2,495

--

15

243

2,753

1965-66

719

175

1

159

1,054

1971-72

87

--

--

--

130

District Total

1961-62

38,975

34,419

1,477

1,016

75,887

1965-66

24,999

13,385

1,548

331

40,363

1971-72 *

8,652

--

--

--

9,216

*Figures for 1971-72 are In hectares.

TABLE No. 14—TOTAL OUT-TURN OF FIBRES IN AHMADNAGAR DISTRICT FROM 1961-62 TO 1965-66 AND 1971-72

(In tons)

Taluka

Year

Cotton

Sann Hemp

Ambadi

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Ahmadnagar

1961-62

73

4

--

1962-63

173

1

--

1963-64

256

1

--

1964-65

318

2

--

1965-66

30

13

--

Sangamner

1961-62

20

--

1

1962-63

6

7

--

1963-64

41

3

1

1964-65

--

8

--

1965-66

1,362

18

1

Akola

1961-62

--

3

5

1962-63

--

4

1

1963-64

--

6

--

1964-65

--

3

--

1965-66

1

2

--

Kopargaon

1961-62

3

42

--

1962-63

4

18

--

1963-64

1

25

--

1964-65

21

24

--

1965-66

--

22

1

Shrirampur

1961-62

48

49

2

1962-63

131

46

--

1963-64

204

96

1

1964-65

99

44

--

1965-66

254

13

1

Rahuri

1961-62

87

8

--

1962-63

334

50

--

1963-64

649

10

--

1964-65

334

8

--

1965-66

673

5

--

Nevasa

1961-62

2,044

2

7

1962-63

995

3

3

1963-64

4,931

5

3

1964-65

2,632

3

2

1965-66

1,102

3

2

Shevgaon

1961-62

3,780

4

15

1962-63

2,205

4

2

1963-64

5,523

4

8

1964-65

2,853

4

7

1965-66

2,839

6

3

TABLE No. 14—contd.

(In tons)*

Taluka

Year

Cotton

Sann Hemp

Ambadi

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Pathardi

1961-62

1,735

1

3

1962-63

857

--

8

1963-64

2,685

--

3

1964-65

1,499

1

1

1965-66

969

2

1

Parner

1961-62

8

--

4

1962-63

1

--

1

1963-64

5

1

--

1964-65

6

1

1

1965-66

--

1

3

Shrigonda

1961-62

6

--

--

1962-63

78

1

1

1963-64

180

5

--

1964-65

87

5

--

1965-66

32

5

--

Karjat

1961-62

56

--

1

1962-63

255

--

--

1963-64

465

2

--

1964-65

191

1

--

1965-66

68

--

--

Jamhed

1961-62

72

1

13

1962-63

254

1

15

1963-64

522

3

15

1964-65

481

1

14

1965-66

29

--

9

District Total

1961-62

7,932

114

46

1962-63

5,295

135

30

1963-64

15,462

161

31

1964-65

8,521

105

25

1965-66

7,359

90

21

1971-72*

10,700

--

--

*Figures for 1971-72 for district total of cotton, are in bales.

The statement on page No. 337 shows that the area under cotton in the district has considerably decreased since 1910-11. In 1968-69 the crop was grown over an area of 62,100 acres of which 41,000 acres accounted for the non-irrigated area and the remaining irrigated wherein Laxmi variety of cotton was grown.

Prior to 1822 Ahmadnagar was not a cotton-producing district. In 1822 the Collector Captain Pottinger observed that out of 25,000 bighas under cultivation not five were sown with cotton. Small quantity of cotton was brought from Berar. There was no trade in cotton in the district. It was sold 3 shers the rupee or at Rs. 70 a khandi of 500 pounds. In 1830 an enterprising Hindu merchant of Ahmadnagar, named Basvantsing, offered to grow and supply Government with clean cotton, provided he received an advance of money free of interest. The Collector was then authorised to advance Rs. 50,000 to Basvantsing on substantial security. Basvantsing succeeded in growing cotton. Other cultivators followed the example of Basvantsing. In 1836, as an encouragement to cotton cultivation in the Deccan, the then Government declared all lands on which cotton should be grown free from the land tax for five years or till the 30th of April 1842. But this concession was cancelled on the 20th of January 1838 as the Court of Directors did not approve of the same. This put a stop to cotton growing in the district. Cotton did not prosper; the cultivators thought grain a much more paying crop. The demand for cotton which followed the American War in 1862 greatly increased both trade and cultivation of cotton. The cultivation of cotton in the district again received set-back since 1910-11. Since then its cultivation did not show any remarkable increase in regard to the acreage under it. It might be that cultivators got better substitute for it in sugarcane, area under which is fast increasing in the district.

The present system of tillage consists of one ploughing and three harrowings in March and May. Before sowing, about 5 cart-loads of farm-yard manure to dry crop and about 10 to 15 cart-loads for an irrigated crop are applied. Sowing of dry cotton is done in June by the seed drill at a distance of 18". The irrigated crop is dibbled at a distance of about 3'X3'. The seed-rate per acre is 3 to 4 kilograms for dry crop and 2 to 3 kilograms for irrigated crop. About 30 kilograms of nitrate and 20 kilograms of P2O5 are given in two doses. Full dose of P2O5 and half dose of nitrate are given at the time of dibbling and the remaining half dose of nitrate is applied one month after sowing. For dry crop three hoeings and one hand-weeding is given and for irrigated crop three hoeings and three hand-weedings are done. The picking season starts from September onwards.

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